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Psychology was first referred to as ‘the study of the soul’, from the Latin word psychologia. Since then, psychology has grown into a scientific discipline investigating the mind and behaviour. Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology lab in 1879, setting psychology on the path of becoming a well-respected scientific discipline. Now, psychology has become a widely accepted area of study that is…
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Psychology was first referred to as ‘the study of the soul’, from the Latin word psychologia. Since then, psychology has grown into a scientific discipline investigating the mind and behaviour.
Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology lab in 1879, setting psychology on the path of becoming a well-respected scientific discipline. Now, psychology has become a widely accepted area of study that is applied to diagnose and treat mental health conditions, ranging from addiction to psychopathy.
The subject can also help us understand ourselves. For example, how our relationships with our parents, our environments, our cultures and biology affect us.
Psychology investigates many topics to help us understand the internal processes that influence our daily lives. Some of the topics that are investigated include:
Psychopathology (the study of mental illness)
Issues and debates
As humans developed, so did our behaviour and the challenges we face, which has expanded the field of study in psychology. Depending on your school and teachers, there are a number of optional modules you may come across, such as:
Cognition and development
In psychology, there are different ways of explaining the human mind and behaviour, these are known as approaches.
There are five main approaches that we will study for this topic. These are the behaviourist approach, the cognitive approach, the biological approach, the psychodynamic approach and the humanistic approach. Each of these approaches suggests that human behaviour is influenced by different stimuli, from our thought processes to our genes.
How behaviour is explained
Behaviour is caused by experiences and things learned via techniques of association or reinforcement (Skinner, Bandura)
Behaviour is caused by cognition such as memory, attention, perception etc.
Behaviour is caused by biological factors such as genes, neurotransmitters, hormones
Behaviour is caused by childhood experiences (Sigmund Freud)
Behaviour is driven by biological/ physiological needs that need to be met (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs)
Tip: learn the pros and cons of each approach to be able to evaluate them
Memory is fundamental to our lives and learning. Therefore, it is a core topic in psychology. In this topic, we will learn about memory stores including the duration and capacity of memory, and what happens when we lose these important memories.
Finally, the topic looks at the impact of psychological studies of memory into eyewitness testimony. This practical application of psychology demonstrates how psychology as a science can help better society.
Multi-store Model of Memory
Support for the Multi-Store Model of Memory
Testing Features of Memory
Support for the Working Memory Model
Studies on Interference
Social psychologists think that our behaviour is influenced by others and societ as a whole. Social influences may put extra pressure on us to behave in a certain way. The social influence topic explores how behaviours such as conformity and obedience are influenced by situational, authoritarian and informational pressures.
Major studies such as the Stanford Prison Experiment and Asch’s line test will be used alongside theoretical fundamentals to give you a better understanding of social influence in psychology.
Explanations for conformity
Informational Influence and Sherif (1935)
Normative Influence and Asch (1951)
The Stanford Prison Experiment
BBC Prison Study
Explanations for Obedience
Milgram’s Agency Theory
Dispositional Influence Adorno (1950)
Explanations for prejudice
Social Identity Theory
Realistic Conflict Theory
Individual differences in obedience/ prejudice
Developmental psychology in obedience/ prejudice
Attachment in psychology refers to our relationships with our caregivers, such as our mothers, fathers, or other carers. In this topic, we will study the different types of attachment and how they can affect someone in adulthood, such as in romantic relationships.
We will also look at a few famous experiments into attachment, such as the Romanian orphan studies and Ainsworth’s Strange Situation.
Stages of Attachment
Condon & Sander (1974)
Bowlby’s monotropic theory
Ainsworth’s Strange Situation
Bowlby’s Theory of Maternal Deprivation
Romanian Orphan Studies
Attachment and Later Relationships
Hazan and Shaver (1987)
Psychopathology is the study of mental illnesses. In this topic, we will explain how mental illnesses are defined and how we define ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ behaviour. In particular, we will look at phobias, depression, autism and OCD including their characteristics, explanations and treatments.
Tip: compare the different treatments and explanations of mental illnesses to understand how psychology can help people.
Definitions of Abnormality
Biological explanations for autism
Individual differences in autism
Psychological theories of autism
Behaviour strategies for autism
Gould bias in IQ testing
Research- the language of psychopaths
Categorising mental health
Alternatives to the medical model
Biopsychology refers to how we can use biology to explain our behaviour. From the nervous system to neural structures and sleep cycles, biology influences our behaviour in ways you may not expect. In this topic, you can find explanations and research into biopsychology. These include post-mortem examinations, split-brain research and brain scans, as well as hemispheric lateralisation.
Nervous System Divisions
The function of the endocrine system- glands and hormones
Process of Synaptic Transmission
Neuron Structure and Function
Fight-or-Flight Response and the Role of Adrenaline
Localisation of Function in the Brain
Plasticity and Functional Recovery of the Brain After Trauma
Functional Magnetic Resonance
Electroencephalograms (EEGs) and Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)
Post Mortem Examination
CAT and PET scans
Circadian, Infradian and Ultradian Rhythms
This large but essential topic takes you through the research methods used by psychologists when studying human behaviour. In particular, we will look at the types of experiments, designs, variables as well as ethical and quality criterion. This is particularly important when assessing the reliability and validity of many of the famous studies in psychology.
Tip: StudySmarter uses diagrams and notes to simplify even the most complex topics.
Types of Experiment
Observational Techniques and Design
Coding frame psychology
Semantic differential rating scale
Types of research in psychology
Cross sectional research
Aims and Hypotheses
Independent Group Designs
Repeated Measures Design
Features of Science
Paradigms and Falsifiability
After research, psychologists must process the data they have collected. This process depends on the type of data collected, the measures used and the type of analysis. Key topics include quantitative data, measures of central tendency, levels of measurement, inferential testing and more.
Types of Data
Reading raw data
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Dispersion
Levels of Measurement
Probability and Significance
When we study psychology, we must be aware of some of the issues which can affect research such as biases, determinism and ethics. One of the main issues you may already be aware of is the nature versus nurture debate. This refers to whether our behaviour is influenced by our genes or by our environment. In this topic, you will explore this idea, its implications for research and much more.
Culture Bias and Sub-Culture Bias
Is psychology a science?
Free Will and Determinism
Reductionism and Holism
Nature vs. Nurture Debate
Idiographic and nomothetic approaches
Ethics of neuroscience
Using conditioning techniques to control the behaviour of children
Although these are the core topics for any psychology student, there is a whole range of interesting topics studied by psychologists which we can take a look at, from relationships to addiction.
Forming relationships with others is one of humanity’s most fundamental behaviours. But the way we choose our relationships has changed dramatically over thousands of years. As a result, psychologists are concerned with why we choose our partners, whether they believe this is due to an innate, evolutionary forces or other factors such as location or personal attitudes. Psychologists are also interested in why relationships break down. Some psychologists think that people break up due to inequity, others think that they break up in gradual stages.
Relationships have changed in recent years, and increasingly, they are formed online. What does this mean for us psychologically? For instance, do we form relationships faster or slower? With greater or less intimacy?
Sexual Selection and Human Reproductive Behaviour
Physical Attractiveness: Halo Effect and Matching Hypothesis
The Filter Theory
Social Exchange Theory
Rusbult’s Investment Model
Duck’s Phase Model of Relationship Breakdown
Self-disclosure in Virtual Relationships
Absence of Gating
The absorption addiction model
The attachment theory explanation
In recent years, the way in which we view gender as a society has radically changed, but has psychology caught up?
The study of gender in psychology covers topics from androgyny to stereotypes whilst investigating the influences on gendered behaviour, such as biology, conditioning and thought processes.
The psychological study of gender is also concerned with gender dysphoria and atypical chromosome patterns as ‘atypical’ expressions of conventional ideas of gender.
Sex, gender and androgyny
Bem’s Sex Role Inventory
Klinefelter’s Syndrome and Turner’s Syndrome.
Hormone imbalance during development
Kohlberg’s 1966 Theory
Gender Schema Theory
Oedipus Complex and Electra Complex
How do we develop from babies who cannot speak, walk or write to fully grown adults who can investigate complex psychological processes and write full-length novels? This process is known as cognitive development.
Psychologists have investigated this phenomenon for years and there are many theories of cognitive development formulated by Piaget, Vygotsky, Selman and Baillargeon. These theories explain a wide range of cognitive development approaches, from intellectual development to social cognition, perspective-taking and more.
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Stages of Intellectual Development
Violation of Expectation Research
Theory of Mind
In a lot of media, schizophrenia is merely presented as hearing voices and thinking/seeing things that aren’t there, but studying the illness psychologically can reveal that while this is true, schizophrenia is much more complex than the media suggests (and often incorrectly portrays).
Psychologists study the characteristics, influences and treatment of schizophrenia. Many think the condition has a biological basis that can be treated using drug therapy. Meanwhile, cognitive psychologists think that the illness has a cognitive basis and thus can be treated using cognitive behavioural therapy and family therapy. The diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia combines the two approaches.
Diagnosis and Classification of Schizophrenia
Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Reliability and Validity in Diagnosis and Classification of Schizophrenia
Typical and Atypical Antipsychotics
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
At one point, humans ate to survive, but as society has developed, we have more and more choices at the dinner table. Not only this, but we have developed illnesses which affect our eating habits, such as anorexia and bulimia. But why has humanity’s attitude towards eating changed so drastically? Psychologists attempt to explain this through evolutionary psychology and learning theory.
As previously mentioned, we can experience illnesses that affect our eating habits, such as anorexia nervosa and obesity. Psychologists have attempted to explain this illness through family theory, social learning theory as well as cognitive and biological processes. Similarly, researchers have cited our biology and psychology as possible reasons for obesity.
We’ve all heard of crazy diets like the apple diet or the keto diet, but why do we “go on” diets? And why do these diets fail most of the time? To explain these phenomena, researchers have developed restraint theory and the boundary model.
Social learning theory anorexia
Psychology behind dieting
Stress is a part of everyday life, making it an important phenomenon for psychologists to study. Whilst stress was quite important for survival a long time ago, it is still necessary for our bodies to process impactful events. Essential to this study is the biological systems that influence stress responses. Psychologists also study the role of hormones and how they influence illness.
The sources of stress differ for each individual and can be small, frequent events, such as missing the bus, or big life changes, such as the death of a loved one. The effect of these stresses varies depending on an individual’s ability to deal with stress due to general hardiness, physiological stress management and stress inoculation therapy.
Physiology of Stress
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
The Sympathomedullary Pathway
Hassles and Uplifts Scale
Evaluation of Life Events as a Source of Stress
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale
Research of the effects of life events on health
Personality Types and Associated Behaviours
Many psychologists explain aggression through biology and genetics. Others view aggression from an ethological perspective (explained through animal behaviour) and use evolutionary psychology to explain aggression as a survival mechanism. Another approach to aggression is learning theory. Famous studies of aggression include Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment, and psychologists also study aggression in real-life situations such as prisons and computer games. This explores the impact the media has on aggression.
Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression
Basic Evidence of Genetic Influences on Aggression
Genetic Research on Serotonin
The Warrior Gene
Genetic Research on Testosterone
Gender and Aggression
General criticisms of genetic research
What is Ethology
Fixed Action Patterns
Innate Releasing Mechanisms
The Hydraulic Model of Instinctive Behaviour: Lorenz (1950)
Bobo Doll Experiment
Frustration Aggression Hypothesis
Sykes Deprivation Model
The Importation Model
Influence of Computer Games
Desensitisation and Disinhibition
When you read the phrase ‘forensic psychology’, TV shows like CSI might come to mind, but in reality, forensic psychology is much more than that. Forensic psychology can help us define, understand, investigate and manage crime.
There are many explanations of why crime occurs, according to forensic psychologists. Some think that crime is biological, whereas others think it is psychological. Some even think that it has a cognitive or psychodynamic basis.
By studying forensic psychology, we can help prevent crime through behaviour modification and anger management.
Biological explanations of crime
Neural and genetic explanations of offending behaviour
Eysenck's Theory of Personality
Cognitive explanations for offending
Level of moral reasoning and cognitive distortions
Differential Association Hypothesis
Psychodynamic theories and the moral component
Anger Management and restorative justice programmes
We’ve all seen viral videos of people who are addicted to collecting memorabilia or smoking 100 cigarettes a day, but what is the psychology behind these addictions?
Since addiction was classified as an illness, psychologists have sought to define addiction, identify its causes and offer possible treatments of the condition.
Psychologists have identified multiple risk factors of addiction, such as genetic vulnerability, personality, social influences and stress. More specifically, we can use brain neurochemistry and learning theory to explain why people become addicted to nicotine. Meanwhile, psychologists explain gambling addiction using learning theory and cognitive theory.
Many researchers have developed theories of addiction such as the theory of planned behaviour and Prochaska’s six stage model of behaviour change. Psychologists have also developed forms of treating addiction such as drug therapy, behavioural interventions and cognitive behavioural therapy.
Physical and Psychological Dependence
Tolerance and WIthdrawal Syndrome
Cognitive behavioural therapy
Theory of reasoned action
Theory of planned behaviour
Six state model of behaviour change
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Psychology is the study of the brain and behaviour. Psychology consists of many divisions such as clinical psychology, forensic psychology, and cognitive psychology, amongst many others. These sub-divisions use psychology theories/approaches to understand why human behave in the way that they do.
Whether psychology can be considered to be a science is an ongoing debate. Some argue that psychology is not a science because it measures behaviours and motives (the brain) that are not directly observable. In addition, it often relies on methods used throughout social science such as self-report techniques, which are subject to reliability and validity issues. However, some do think that psychology should be classed as a science because research is vigorously tested and applies the scientific method to find reliable and valid results.
Clinical psychology is a sub-division of psychology that investigates mental health. Topics often included in this subject are different types of mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, addiction, eating disorders or, depression. When researching this field, clinical psychologgists are interested in investigating the prevalence, causes of mental illness and treatment/intervention and prevention plans.
Psychology is a diverse subject that can be applied to many things such as businesses, human resources, and clinical fields such as hospitals. Therefore, with a psychology degree, many job opportunities are available. When working in specialised psychology jobs such as a therapist or clinical psychologist, then higher education in the chosen field is usually required.
Memory is an example of a cognition. Memory is the active process of learning, maintaining and recalling information.
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